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  • For Children (Hungarian: A Gyermekeknek) is a cycle of short piano pieces composed by Bela Bartok. The collection was originally written in 1908-11, and comprised 85 pieces which were issued in four volumes.

  • A Roman Catholic

  • a resident of modern Rome

  • an inhabitant of the ancient Roman Empire

  • A citizen or soldier of the ancient Roman Republic or Empire

  • A citizen of modern Rome

  • relating to or characteristic of people of Rome; "Roman virtues"; "his Roman bearing in adversity"; "a Roman nose"

  • A person treated by another as a source of pleasure or amusement rather than with due seriousness

  • An object for a child to play with, typically a model or miniature replica of something

  • (toy) dally: behave carelessly or indifferently; "Play about with a young girl's affection"

  • (toy) a nonfunctional replica of something else (frequently used as a modifier); "a toy stove"

  • An object, esp. a gadget or machine, regarded as providing amusement for an adult

  • (toy) plaything: an artifact designed to be played with

Did you play it too? Marbles

Did you play it too? Marbles

Hast Du dies auch gespielt? Murmeln ------ A marble is a small spherical toy usually made from glass, clay, steel, or agate. These balls vary in size. Most commonly, they are about ? inch (1.25 cm) in diameter, but they may range from less than ? inch (0.635 cm) to over 3 inches (7.75 cm), while some art glass marbles for display purposes are over 12 inches (30 cm) wide. Marbles can be used for a variety of games called marbles. They are often collected, both for nostalgia and for their aesthetic colors. In the North of England the objects and the game are called 'taws', with larger taws being called bottle washers after the use of a marble in Codd-neck bottles.Marbles originated in Harappan civilization in Pakistan near the river Indus. Various marbles of stone were found on excavation near Mohenjo-daro. Marbles are also often mentioned in Roman literature, and there are many examples of marbles from ancient Egypt. They were commonly made of clay, stone or glass and commonly referred to as a "Glass alley".

Ceramic marbles entered inexpensive mass production in the 1870s.

A German glassblower invented marble scissors in 1846, a device for making marbles.[1] The first mass-produced toy marbles (clay) made in the US were made in Akron, Ohio by S.C. Dyke, in the early 1890s. Some of the first US-produced glass marbles were also made in Akron, by James Harvey Leighton. In 1903, Martin Frederick Christensen—also of Akron, Ohio—made the first machine-made glass marbles on his patented machine. His company, The M.F. Christensen & Son Co., manufactured millions of toy and industrial glass marbles until they ceased operations in 1917. The next US company to enter the glass marble market was Akro Agate. This company was started by Akronites in 1911, but was located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Today, there are only two American-based toy marble manufacturers: Jabo Vitro in Reno, Ohio, and Marble King, in Paden City, West Virginia.
Various games can be played with marbles; any such game can itself be called 'marbles' (cf. darts, skittles, bowls).

One game involves drawing a circle in sand, and players will take turns knocking other players' marbles out of the circle with their own marble. This game is called ringer. Other versions involve shooting marbles at target marbles or into holes in the ground (such as rolly or rolley hole). A larger-scale game of marbles might involve taking turns trying to hit an opponent's marble to win. A useful strategy is to throw a marble so that it lands in a protected, or difficult location if it should miss the target. As with many children's games, new rules are devised all the time, and each group is likely to have its own version, often customized to the environment. While the game of marbles was once ubiquitous and attracted widespread press to national tournaments, its popularity has dwindled in the television age.

Das Murmelspiel (auch Murmeln) ist ein in der ganzen Welt verbreitetes Kinderspiel mit runden Gegenstanden.
In deutschsprachigen Landern sind das Murmelspiel und die Murmel unter zahlreichen Namen bekannt: Bucker, Datzer, Dotze, Duxer, Glaser, Heuer, Klickern, Knicker, Marbeln, Marmeln, Marbeln, Schnellern, Schussern und Wetzel sind nur einige gangige davon.[2] Der Name Murmel kommt von Marmor, dem fruher haufigsten Herstellungsmaterial. Die ubrigen Namen beschreiben entweder das klackernde Gerausch der aneinandersto?enden Kugeln oder die Art ihrer Bewegung.Funde aus babylonischer, romischer und germanischer Zeit belegen, dass das Murmelspiel bereits sehr alt ist. Die altesten Murmeln datieren von 3000 vor Chr. Eine Anzahl runder Schmucksteine fand man als Beigabe im Grab eines agyptischen Kindes in Nagada. Im Britischen Museum lagern Murmeln aus Kreta, die auf 2000 – 1700 vor Chr. datieren. Gefunden wurden sie in der Minoischen Ausgrabungsstatte beim Berg Petsofas in der Nahe von Palekastro.

Seit der Zeit um 1500 scheinen aufgrund archaologischer Funde die verschiedenen Spiele, die man mit Murmeln, Klickern oder Schussern spielen konnte, in Mitteleuropa an Beliebtheit deutlich zuzunehmen. Kugelgro?e, Material und Farbigkeit der Murmeln wurden vielfach variiert: Neben unterschiedlichen Murmeln aus unglasierter oder wei? engobierter roter Irdenware, finden sich vor allem braune Faststeinzeugmurmeln oder seit der Mitte des 19. Jh. Murmeln aus Glas.[1]

Die Produktion von Glasmurmeln begann erst 1848 im thuringischen Ort Lauscha. Dort erfand der Glasblaser Christoph Simon Karl Greiner die so genannte Marbelschere. Marbel ist das itzgrundische Wort fur Murmel, das auch in das Hochdeutsche ubernommen wurde. Im September 1848 erhielt Christoph Simon Karl Greiner die Konzession zur alleinigen Herstellung von Kunstlichen Achat- und Edelstein-Kugeln. Die in allen moglichen Farben mit kunstvollen und geschwungenen Spiralmustern im Inneren der Glasmurmel hergestellten Kugeln werden auf traditionelle Weise durch Zugabe von Farbe oder farbigen Glasbandern

Paul Hartmann

Paul Hartmann

German postcard by Ross Verlag, nr. A 3255/1, 1941-1944. Photo: Tobis/Foto Dahn.

German stage actor Paul Hartmann (1889-1977) made over 100 films, both in the silent and the period. Despite his commitment to the Nazi regime, he could continue his career quite smoothly into the 1950’s and 1960’s.

Paul Wilhelm Constantin Hartmann was born in 1889 in Furth, Germany. He was the son of Wilhelm Hartmann, the manager of a toy-export company, and his wife Maria, nee Betz. From 1907 on , he studied acting with Adalbert Czokke, and in 1908 he had his first engagement at the Stadtheater of Zwickau. In the following years he played at the Bellevue-Theater in Stettin, the Stadttheater Zurich, and from November 1913 at the Deutsche Theater in Berlin under direction of the legendary Max Reinhardt. He also started to work for the cinema. He made his film debut as a jeune premier in 1915 in Zofia - Kriegs-Irrfahrten eines Kindes/Zofia – the War Odysseys of a Child (1915, Hubert Moest) with Ernst Pittschau and Hedda Vernon. Soon followed more films like Der Trick/The Trick (1915, Fred Sauer) with Aud Egede Nissen, Die verschleierte Dame/The Veiled Lady (1915, Richard Oswald), Ein Blatt Papier/A Page of Paper (1916, Joe May), Feenhande/Hands of a Fairy (1916, Rudolf Biebrach) with Henny Porten, the Harry Deebs detective Das Geheimnis der leeren Wasserflasche/The Secret of the Empty Water Bottle (1917, Joe May) starring Harry Liedtke, Christa Hartungen (1917, Rudolf Biebrach) starring Henny Porten, and Es werde Licht!/ let There Be Light! (1918, Richard Oswald). His stage and film career suffered a short break when he was called up into the military service in 1917, after that he continued the career smoothly. In the 1920’s he played romantic and melancholic characters in films like Katharina die Grosse/Catherine the Great (1920, Reinhold Schunzel) with Lucie Hoflich, Anna Boleyn/Anne Boleyn (1920, Ernst Lubitsch) with Emil Jannings and Henny Porten, Schloss Vogelod/The Haunted Castle (1921, Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau) with Olga Tschechowa, Der Roman der Christine von Herre (1921, Ludwig Berger) with Heinrich George, Luise Millerin (1922, Carl Froelich) with Lil Dagover, Alt-Heidelberg/The Student Prince (1923, Hans Behrendt) with Eva May, Zur Chronik von Grieshuus/The Chronicles of the Gray House (1925, Arthur von Gerlach) and the silent film operetta Der Rosenkavalier/The Knight Of The Rose (1925, Robert Wiene) with Jaque Catelain. In 1924 worked at the Theater in der Josefstadt in Wien (Vienna), and in 1925 he moved over to the Burgtheater. From 1927 he turned away from the film business and devoted his career exclusively to the Burgtheater.

With the introduction of the sound film Paul Hartmann returned to the cinema and played now tough and adamant heroes, like the constructor and captain next to Hans Albers in F.P.1 antwortet nicht/F.P.1 Doesn't Answer (1932, Karl Hartl), or as the selfsacrificing engineer in Der Tunnel/The Tunnel (1933, Kurt aka Curtis Bernhardt). Other popular films were Der Laufer von Marathon/The Marathon Runner (1933, Ewald Andre Dupont), Salon Dora Green/The House of Dora Green (1933, Henrik Galeen) with Alfred Abel, and Mazurka (1935, Willi Forst) with Pola Negri. From 1935 on he was a company member of the Preu?ischen Staatstheater in Berlin, where he stayed till the end of WW II. In 1934 he was named Staatsschauspieler (Stage Artist of the State), and from May 1937 he was part of the Art Committee of the UFA . He also appeared in such propaganda films as Pour le merite (1938, Karl Ritter), the biography Bismarck (1940, Wolfgang Liebeneiner) and Ich klage an/I Accuse (1941, Wolfgang Liebeneiner). In April 1942 he became the president of the Reichstheaterkammer. His commitment to the Nazi regime did not really harm his career or his popularity after the war. After being banned from the theatre in 1945 Hartmann could only return to the stage in 1948 as Faust in a production of the Goethe play in Bonn. During the 1950’s he was engaged by a.o. the Schauspielhaus in Dusseldorf, the Theater am Kurfurstendamm in Berlin, and the Burgtheater in Vienna. He also returned to the cinema. The ageing star now mainly worked as a character actor in supporting roles, as in Die Dame in Schwarz/The Lady in Black (1951, Erich Engels) with Mady Rahl, Der grosse Zapfenstreich/The Sergeant's Daughter (1953, George Hurdalek) with Johanna Matz, Regina Amstetten (1954, Kurt Neumann), Die Barrings/The Barrings (1955, Rolf Thiele) with Dieter Borsche and Nadja Thiele, Der Fuchs von Paris/The Fox of Paris (1957, Paul May), Buddenbrooks (1959, Alfred Weidenmann), and Rosen fur den Staatsanwalt Roses for the Prosecutor (1959, Wolfgang Staudte). He finished his film career in the 1960's with productions like the tv-film Hermann und Dorothea (1961, Ludwig Berger), the heimatfilm Waldrausch (1962, Paul May), the international war film The Longest Day (1962, Ken Annakin, Andrew Marton, Bernhard Wicki), and finally

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